On 15 October 2015, the latest resuscitation guidelines from the European Resuscitation Council were published. These are the guidelines used by all national resuscitation councils to assist with the conformity of current standards.
• The ERC Guidelines 2015 highlight the critical importance of the interactions between the emergency medical dispatcher, the bystander who provides CPR and the timely deployment of an AED. An effective, co-ordinated community response that draws these elements together is key to improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. • The emergency medical dispatcher plays an important role in the early diagnosis of cardiac arrest, the provision of dispatcher-assisted CPR (also known as telephone CPR), and the location and dispatch of an AED.
• The bystander who is trained and able should assess the collapsed victim rapidly to determine if the victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally and then immediately alert the emergency services. • The victim who is unresponsive and not breathing normally is in cardiac arrest and requires CPR. Bystanders and emergency medical dispatchers should be suspicious of cardiac arrest in any patient presenting with seizures and should carefully assess whether the victim is breathing normally.
• CPR providers should perform chest compressions for all victims in cardiac arrest. CPR providers trained and able to perform rescue breaths should combine chest compressions and rescue breaths. Our confidence in the equivalence between chest compression-only and standard CPR is not sufficient to change current practice.
• High-quality CPR remains essential to improving outcomes. The guidelines on compression depth and rate have not changed. CPR providers should ensure chest compressions of adequate depth (at least 5 cm but no more than 6 cm) with a rate of 100–120 compressions min−1. After each compression allow the chest to recoil completely and minimise interruptions in compressions. When providing rescue breaths/ventilations spend approximately 1 s inflating the chest with sufficient volume to ensure the chest rises visibly. The ratio of chest compressions to ventilations remains 30:2. Do not interrupt chest compressions for more than 10 s to provide ventilations.
• Defibrillation within 3-5 min of collapse can produce survival rates as high as 50-70 %. Early defibrillation can be achieved through CPR providers using public access and on-site AEDs. Public access AED programmes should be actively implemented in public places that have a high density of citizens. • The adult CPR sequence can be used safely in children who are unresponsive and not breathing normally. Chest compression depths in children should be at least one third of the depth of the chest (for infants that is 4 cm, for children 5 cm). 1 2 ERC Guidelines Summary of the changes since the 2010 Guidelines.
• A foreign body causing severe airway obstruction is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment with back blows and, if that fails to relieve the obstruction, abdominal thrusts. If the victim becomes unresponsive CPR should be started immediately whilst help is summoned.